How many Confederate monuments, symbols and markers exist in U.S. public spaces?

As Southern California braces itself for protests this weekend in Laguna Beach, the country continues to grapple with the controversies surrounding the display of Confederate monuments.

Here’s a look at Confederate monuments and symbols in the United States.

Confederate symbols and names

More than 150 years after the Civil War, the Southern Poverty Law Center identified 1,503 Confederate place names and other symbols in public spaces in the U.S.

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Uncertain future

mounuments map

Confederate holidays

Six of the Southern states observe official state holidays that honor the Confederacy or its soldiers or leaders. Two states have at least two holidays in which state employees are given a day off.

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Confederate names

There are 10 major U.S. military bases named in honor of Confederate military leaders in the Southern states.OCR-L-FOCUS-CONFEDERATE-NAMES-0818

 

Evolution of the Confederate flag

After its first design in 1861, the Confederate flag changed several times in response to confusion created on the battlefield. Still, some support it as a symbol of Southern heritage, and others view it as a symbol of racism and slavery.

Stars and Bars (March 1861): The first national Confederate flag

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The first flag featured seven stars for each state of the Confederacy at the time. The flag’s similarity to the U.S. flag created problems on the battlefield.

 

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The number of stars for the Confederate states grew to 13.

The Battle Flag (Nov. 1861)

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Also known as ‘Southern Cross,’ it was the flag of Rober E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia issued to troops to distinguish them from Union soldiers.

Stainless Banner (May 1863)

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The second national flag, it took its name from the white field. When the wind didn’t blow, only the white was clearly visible, making it look like a white flag of surrender.

Blood-Stained Banner (March 1865)

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The third national flag. In the third incarnation of the Confederate flag, a red vertical stripe was added on the far end at the suggestion of Maj. Arthur L. Rogers. Gen. Lee surrendered in April.

Public opinion

Results from a recent NPR/PBS NewsHour/Marist Poll of U.S. adults

Public opinion
Sources: The Southern Poverty Law Center; The Associated Press; Smithsonian Institution and Museum of the Confederacy;

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